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The first installation in Liverpool was at Edward Mahony's in December 1885. This is the earliest I have found for Lancashire.
ACCRINGTON. Cash ball system in use until 1971-2 given to a museum in Glasgow. M.Proctor - could be one of the locations below.
ACCRINGTON. Shop on Union Street. "I loved the whizzy machine in the Union Street shop. It was probably made by a firm called Dart Cash Carriers in Stoke on Trent, still going in the late 60s." Pendy in post to Accrington Web forum, 8/2/06
ACCRINGTON. Baileys. "Baileys was trading in the early sixties... A school friend's mum was the one who used to deal with all the money. She sat up in the elevated position overlooking the shop floor and taking the money out of the canisters and issuing receipts." Margaret Pilkington in Accrington Web forum, 3/5/09. See also ACCRINGTON. Moffits below.
ACCRINGTON. Moffits (haberdashery),
Church Street. Overhead wire system. Posting to Accrington
Web Forum, 5/10/03. "The payment method in either Baileys/Moffats [sic]
in Union Street, Accrington. The shop assistant put your money in this
brass tube and it was transported upwards by a method of pulleys to the
cashier sitting in a wooden box, a little like the judge in court. Put
in your receipt and change and sent it back whizzing down to you. Thought
this person very grand, and they, in turn, looked down on you with snooty
arrogance." KateX in posting to Accrington
Web forum, 6/2/06.
ACCRINGTON. Sauls 'Sell Anything'
Shop, Abbey Street. "You gave the assistant your money, she would
put it in an overhead container, pull a lever, and it shot up to the cashier
sitting in a separate booth overlooking the stalls: it would then be shot
back with your change. If you bought anything upstairs, your money was
placed in a wooden ball which rolled down a track to the cashier." Memoirs
of an uncommon man
ASHTON UNDER LYNE. Co-op, Arcadia. Tube system. David Holt
ASHTON UNDER LYNE. Roebucks. Wire system in 1937. Voices of Ashton under Lyne
ATHERTON. Lowes (drapers). Lamson Ariel system. One line was moved to the bookshop of the Tramway Museum in Crich, Derbyshire. Molly Proctor, John Liffen and David Holt
BLACKBURN. Consumers' Tea Company. "Come and see the New American Cash Railway, now in operation at the Consumers' Tea Company's new premises in Church-street. None like it outside the metropolis." Blackburn Times, 26 May 1888, p. 5
BLACKBURN. Co-op Emporium, Town Hall Street. "The cashiers used the vacuum tube system to send the customers' money up to the office in a little cylindrical gadget, which would be sent back to the counter with the change in it. It used to fascinate the kids when it was in operation. Whoosh!" Brian M in posting to Blackburn Now & Then, 9 Feb. 2010
BLACKPOOL. Clark and Heap, Palatine Buildings, facing Central Station. "J. Entwistle and Co. have been favoured with instructions from the joint liquidators to offer for sale by public auction .. Lamson Cash Railway." Lancashire Evening Post, 30 Dec. 1939, p. 2
BLACKPOOL. Hunters. "Working at Hunters was like being a servant in a large Victorian house. The shop was heavy with mahogony and pervaded by rank. It had hardly changed since the nineteenth century, and still had a system of overhead cash containers that winged and swung their way on wires from the counters to a central cash-desk." Gerald Mars. Becoming an anthropologist. (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2015) p. 71
BLACKPOOL. James Rigby and Sons, 12-14 Bank Hey Street. "Mr. John Whittle has received instructions from Messrs. James Rigby and Sons to sell by auction the surplus stock-in-trade and valuable shop fixtures, on the above premises... Two 'Swift' Overhead Cash Railways." Lancashire Daily Post, 25 Sep. 1908, p. 6
BLACKPOOL. Stylo. Cash carrier. Brenda Kitchen in posting to Facebook
BLACKPOOL. Sweet and Clarks. "By the time of its demolition, c. 1966, Sweet & Clarke's ladies and children's outfitters at the corner of Abingdon Street and Birley Street was considered old-fashioned and quaint. A system of overhead wires, dating back to 1919, transferred takings from the counters to a central cashier's booth. The corner was redeveloped for shops with the Oyster Catcher Restaurant." Allan Wood. Blackpool through Time (Amberley, 2013)
BOLTON. Browns Trimming Shop. Cash carrier. Sue Bellingham in posting to Facebook.
BOLTON. Great and Little Bolton Co-op Soc. Forty stations of pneumatic tube system supplied by Sturtevant Engineering Company. [Not known whether these were all in one shop.] Sturtevant letter of 13/8/29
BURNLEY. Freeman Hardy Willis (shoes). Cash carrier. Granny Claret in posting to Acrington Web forum, 6/2/06
BURNLEY. Peacocks. "Ever since I was little and occasionally dragged by mum .. into the quite posh Peacock's emporium in the high street of my home town of Bury, I have always found joy inside the high-class grocer... The place had lovely scrubbed plank flooring and those fantastically exciting tube things that grabbed mum's money and whizzed it across the ceiling as fast and noisy as an angry hornet... Peacock's suddenly vanished, just a few months before my 16th birthday." Independent, 3 Apr. 1999. See also Manchester: Kendals.
BURY. E.Redfern (Draper &c), Silver Street. "The shop is seventy-five feet in length, by twenty-five feet wide... This is the only establishment in Bury where the new American cash railway is in use; an invention which greatly facilitates the conveyance of change to and from customers." Bury: a century ago. Reprint of part of a book published in 1889 by Historical Publihing Co. (Nelson: Landy Publishing, 1990)
CHORLEY. Co-op. Corner next to market. Cash carrier. Susan Laithwaite in posting to Facebook
COLNE. Co-op, Albert Road. Wire system in 1940s-50s. Jackie Foulds
FARNWORTH. Farnworth & Kearsley Co-op. Wire system in 1950s. Building now pulled down. Harry Hodgkins
FLEETWOOD. Industrial Co-operative Society. "The introduction of the Lamson pneumatic cash taking system gives an efficient touch to the service." Fleetwood Chronicle, 12 Aug. 1927, p. 6
FLEETWOOD. Priestleys. "The assistant wrapped the money in the bill and reached up to a small metal container suspended above her head, unscrewed it and put the money and the bill inside, screwed it up again and pulled a cord which started the container sailing away over everyones’ head to the cashier who was in a little box at the back of the shop and slightly elevated. The cashier then unscrewed the container, recorded the sale, and put the change and the receipted bill back in the container and returned it to the counter assistant, who then handed the change and the bill back to the customer. The last shops with this kind of change system as far as I know were priestley’s and the Co-op." Life in Fleetwood & Wyre website
GARSTANG. ? "There was one [cash carrier] at Garstang in the 40’s." Vera Redman on Facebook
HAYDOCK. Co-op. Cash carrier. Ann Cafferkey on Facebook
LANCASTER. Reddrops. "I remember Reddrops where your money was put in a capsule which then shot along on overhead wires then returned with the change and the receipt!" Susie Milner in Lancaster Today website. Also Lancaster Online website
LIVERPOOL. Adair and Dawson, 73-77 London Road. "In consequence of expiration of lease. By order of Messrs. Adair and Dawson ... Thomas Whitehead and Sons are instructed to sell by auction the excellent shop fixtures: ... cash railway." Liverpool Mercury, 1 Sep. 1899
LIVERPOOL. Blacklers (shoe shop). "All my memories of Blacklers are the horse, grotto and pneumatic tube system sending money through the shop." Teri Wilson on Twitter
LIVERPOOL. Blanche Lucas, 364-368 Smithdown Road, L15. "Blanche Lucas's small department store had a Lamson (pneumatic tube) System as well, I recall from visits there in the 60s... It was near Penny Lane and after many years as a 'Motor World' is now Hatton's Model Railway shop." 'irishseashipping.com' in posting to Yo! Liverpool Forum 23/2/09.
LIVERPOOL. Bon Marché (merged with G.H.Lee in 1961). Pneumatic
tube system in late 1940s. Joyce Kearney in Millennium Memory Bank, National
LIVERPOOL. F.B. Brown, Clayton Square. "Girl, aged 14, for despatching runners in cash tube-room." Liverpool Echo, 15 Feb. 1943, p. 1
LIVERPOOL. Bunney's Juvenile Shipparies (Liverpool International Exhibition). "Bunney's Juvenile Shipparies increase in popularity, and fresh attractions are being added daily. Lamson's cash railway system has been adopted here for conveying cash from purchasers to the cash desk without the assistants leaving their prescribed positions. Over a thousand purchases were made in the building on Monday, the cash and bills for which passed over the railway with marvellous precision. Those who have not seen this clever contrivance in operation should examine it at Bunney's Shipperies. Liverpool Mercury, 17 June 1886
LIVERPOOL. Colliers, London Road. "Situations vacant... Full and part time ladies for cash tube room." Liverpool Echo, 1 Nov. 1965, p. 12
LIVERPOOL. Compton House. Cash ball system remembered ca 1917 by Mrs Ellen Parry. "The assistant would place the bill and cash in a wooden ball (which unscrewed in the middle) and place this in an overhead wooden frame... A cord was pulled which sent the ball up to another frame about 11ft. high. The ball then rolled down a ramp on to wooden rails." Liverpool Echo, 21 Feb. 1987, p. 10
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, Aigburth Road. "My mother drilled into us the Co-op or Coey number .. when she sent us to the Co-op on Aigburth Road... I enjoyed going there enormously, especially with the overhead 'railway' system, when money was exchanged between customer and shop assistent and despatched to the cashier." Pamela Russell. Liverpool's children in the 1950s. (History Press, 2012)
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, Byrom Street. Wire system. "Wallaby" posting to Liverpool & South West Lancs Genealogy message board, 27/1/10
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, Bootle. " They used to have the overhead money carriers, which we all assosciate with the early co-op." Maureen Brown in posting to Bootle Times 8/3/08
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, Belle Vale, Gateacre. "I used to stand in there for ages and ages just watching the gizmos travel around the shop with money in them and they'd finish up in the office above." Pete in posting to Gateacre chat 19/3/07
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, Great Homer Street. "The famous Co-op at the Kirkdale Road end of Great Homer Street. I would go there with my mother and marvel at the overhead cable system that whisked your money up to to the accounts area before returning a receipt and any change." Photo of exterior. Lost Tribe of Everton website.
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, London Road, L3. "They used to put your money in a tube and send it upstairs to the cash office, then your change came back down another tube." MerseyPride posting to The Scouse House! Froum, 23/3/04
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, Wavetree Nook Road, L15. Wire system. Liverpool ndo site
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, Heyworth Street, L5. "My mother .. mentioned the Co-op in Heyworth Street L5, and the overhead gadget that took the money." Carol B posting to ENG-Liverpool-L list, 9/6/03
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, Lodge Lane, L8. "The Co-op on the corner of Asbridge St where you gave your 'divi' .. number and the assistant put the money into one of those overhead gadgets which whizzed to the cashier." Sylvia Walker posting to ENG-Liverpool-L list, 8/6/03
LIVERPOOL. Co-op, Walton Vale, Aintree. Cash carrier. Kathleen Clow in posting to Facebook.
LIVERPOOL. Cripps (ladies' outfitters), Bold Street. Cash carrier. Susan Brown in posting to Facebook.
LIVERPOOL. W.J. Downey, 71-75 Walton Road. "Tenders are invited for .. that well-known and lucrative Business... The fixtures include .. Lamson's cash railway." Liverpool Daily Post, 24 Jul. 1889, p. 2
LIVERPOOL. Henochsberg & Ellis (tailors and outfitters), University House, Islington/Camden Streets. Messrs. Henochsberg & Ellis will signify .. the opening of their handsome and comfortable premises ... Messrs Henochsberg & Ellis have the cash railway system, and all cash vouchers pass into one cash desk." Liverpool Mercury, 5 Nov. 1891, p.1
LIVERPOOL. T.J.Hughes, London Road, L3. "[In the 1950s] we had those overhead wire thingys where you would put the customers money in and fire it to the nearest elevated cash cubicle. We weren't as modern as the Co-op with their suction ones." Benzroy posting to The Scouse House! Forum, 24/3/04
LIVERPOOL. Lewis's. "Lamson pneumatic tubes for the speedy handling of all cash and credit transactions are installed throughout Messrs. Lewis's stores at Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham and Glasgow." Yorkshire Evening Post, 15 Sep. 1932, p. 10
LIVERPOOL. Edward F. Mahony, The Paragon, 16-20 London Road. "Mechanical triumph and scientific novelty. Lamson's cash railway. Edward F. Mahony has the honour to announce that he is the first in the field in Liverpool with this amazing invention, which is now running throughout the establishment." Liverpool Mercury, 19 Dec. 1885, p.1.
LIVERPOOL. Millets, Church Street, next to Woolworths. Wire system. "Daggers" posting to Liverpool & South West Lancs Genealogy message board, 12/2/11
LIVERPOOL. Prides (hairdressers), Elliot Street. "Cashier for office cash desk: Lamson tubes: good wages. - Prides. Hairdressers." Liverpool Echo and evening Express, 15 Jul. 1964, p. 12
LIVERPOOL. Sturlas, Great Homer Street. "They had the same system [as at Old Swan]." Samp in posting to Yo Liverpool, 23 Feb. 2009
LIVERPOOL. Sturlas (small dept. store) , Old Swan, next block to the Job Centre. Closed in the early 70s. "They had those money pipe things whereby the assistant wrote out a receipt, took the money and put it in a tube and off it went, presumably to a cash office." Burkhilly in posting to Yo Liverpool, 23 Feb. 2009
LIVERPOOL. Wilkinson Bros., London Road. "Desk cashier - wanted, sharp girl; cash railway - Wilkinson Bros." Liverpool Mercury, 23 Dec. 1891
LIVERPOOL. Woolworths. "You could
pinch sweets when they were busy reaching up to retrieve the change from
those brass containers that used to zing overhead from cashier's cubicle
to counter". Daily Telegraph, 1/9/01, p.22
MANCHESTER. Affleck & Brown (department
store). "Some photographs taken at the ladies' underwear counter
in 1927 show a barrage of tubes (15 parallel ones) below the ceiling creating
an appalling eyesore." (Mrs Proctor). "I also seem to remember
that payments were made in an overhead 'bullet' which took your bill and
money to an invisible cashier." Times, 13/1/01
MANCHESTER. Argenta Co. "The largest and .. the best and most attractive [frozen-meat shop] .. is one of sixty-seven owned by the 'Argenta' Co... They have an overhead cash conveyer to pay desk, which must be a great saving of time." The Press (Canterbury, N.Z.), 29 Dec. 1908, p. 9
MANCHESTER. Henry Barrie (high class outfitter and school uniform supplier), St Anne's Square. Pneumatic tube system in late 1960s with seven terminals. Cash office was at the foot of stairwell. A correspondent
MANCHESTER. Blackley Co-op, Blackley. Photograph of the "Bungalow emporium" in Townley, showing a two-wire system - similar to a Gipe.
MANCHESTER. Co-op, Lees Street, Openshaw. "The co-op had one of those aerial catapult wire systems that took the bills and customers’ cash to a central accounting office, and from there a receipt and change came back. It was amazing for a small boy to see these cash carriers whizzing about the store on a sort of overhead rail system, it would have made a great toy." Openshaw Memories website
MANCHESTER. Finnigans (jewelry, leather goods), Deansgate. Pneumatic tube system. Graham Ellis
MANCHESTER. Abel Heywood & Son, 47/61 Lever Stret. "Smart girl wanted, age 15-16, [for] cash tubes and general office." Manchester Evening News, 1 Sep. 1947, p. 4
MANCHESTER. James Hughes. Pneumatic tube system. Photograph in Hammond
MANCHESTER. Jax, 41 Market Street. "Your change comes back in a flash at Jax, thanks to the famous Lamson cash tube system... Jax newest store opening 11 a.m. Friday next." Manchester Evening News, 22 Sep. 1952, p. 3
MANCHESTER. Kendal Milne & Co. The only other "high-class grocer" was to be found in Manchester, at the department store, Kendal Milne & Co... Kendal's .. had an updated version of Peacock's whizzer thing. Instead of the insane ceiling-insect transaction, this hugely swish store had a "shlup-whoosh-fizz-zip" suction tube masterpiece beside each and every pay station. When the change, receipt, etc., arrived back from Kendal's cash central, the tube would land with a great "whop". Even though you knew its arrival was immanent, its final thump would always make everyone - even the familiar Mancunian till operative - jump." Independent 3 Apr. 1999. See also Bury: Peacocks.
MANCHESTER. Lewis's, Market Street. "The wonders of a new city emporium. Messrs. Lewis's enterprise... The firm are rather proud of their pneumatic tube cash-carrying system which brings every one of the sixty odd departments into immediate touch with the immense cashier's office staffed by a score or two of girls." Manchester Evening News, 8 Oct. 1915, p. 6
MANCHESTER. Leather Bros, Withington.
Wire system. Cash was dealt with in the basement. Information from
MANCHESTER. Manchester & Salford Equitable Co-op, 66 Beech Road, Chorlton-cum-Hardy. Opened Jan. 1915 and closed 1967. Wire system. "There was a lady who sat in an elevated box. She was the cashier. The grocer sent the money and grocery list in a metal can which was attached to a pulley and sent across on a wire, where she would check the list and send back the receipt and change. I think there were two of these, one at each end of the shop." Beech Road website
MANCHESTER. Morgansteins, 60 Deansgate. "Sales by auction... at Messrs. Morganstein's, 60 Deansgate, Manchester, all shop fittings... 4-way Dart Cash Carrier." Manchester Guardian, 28 Apr. 1937, p.1
MANCHESTER. Pauldens, All Saints. Pneumatic tube system. Shop burned down. D.Holt
MANCHESTER. Ross and Co., 91 Preston Street, Hulme. "Smart girl for cash railway in grocer's." Manchester Evening News, 25 Jun. 1917, p. 1
OLDHAM. Liptons. "The cash desk was high up behind a glass partition. The money you paid was put in a box and it travelled along wires up to the cash desk, then you had to wait till you got your change by the same process." Oldham Historical Research Group website
PRESTON. Co-op. "To many young people seeing the cash containers overhead on a pulley track rail system, in which the cash received for purchases was inserted into a tube and sent hurtling along to the cashier's office and returned (with change) along the same route, was fascinating to watch." Blackpool Gazette website
PRESTON. Gooby's (haberdashers), Church Street. "There was an overhead wire with round capsules to send cash and get change from a central cash desk." Betty Stringer in posting to Flickr. Photograph of Exterior.
PRESTON. Hawkins, Friargate. Cash carrier. Kate Akroyd in posting to Facebook
PRESTON. Lingards (clothiers), Fishergate and Mount Street. "They had a fascinating cash system - whilst the purchases were being wrapped for the customer, the cash and sales docket were placed into a small cylinder, which was then fed into a pneumatic tube, to be whisked away into the bowels of the shop, returning a few minutes later with your change and a receipt!" Embon2011 in posting to Flickr website, 2011
ROCHDALE. Equitable Pioneers' Co-operative Society, Drake Street. "At last the gigantic task of converting the old Rochdale Reform Club into a first-class up-to-date drapery emporium, to be known as 'City House', has been completed, and the Rochdale Equitable Pioneers' Co-perative Society are to be congratulated on effecting a really fine improvement in the general appearance of that part of Duke Street... There is the pneumatic cash tube system by means of which money paid by customers is silently and swiftly whisked away to the cashier on the first floor, and any change is returned with equal rapidity... The basement .. also contains .. the room from which the pneumatic cash tube system and the vacuum cleaning apparatus is worked." Rochdale Times, 8 Apr. 1922, p. 10
ROCHDALE. Provident Co-operative Society (broke away from the Pioneers), Lord Street. "Young lady .. to act as cashier for cash railway cable system... one accustomed to the system preferred." Liverpool Daily Post, 19 Oct. 1909, p. 2
ST HELENS. Boots. Cash carrier. Harry Preston
ST HELENS. Co-op. Higher Parr Street, Fingerpost. Wire system. See Reminiscences
ST HELENS. Harts. "A cash things [sic] that ran on wires overhead." "The Undertaker" in posting to St Helens Connected, 17/8/04
ST HELENS. Hawkins, Naylor Street (men's clothiers). "Flying cash canisters". Jules in posting to St Helens Connected, 18/8/04
ST HELENS. Oxleys. Cash carrier. Lynn Jones in posting to Facebook
ST HELENS. Skelton's, Jubilee Buildings, Horsemarket Street. "Owing to the fire at Messrs. Skelton's premises last May, an almost complete re-construction has been necessary... Among other conveniences [a] Lamson's Cash Railway Rapid Wire system has been fitted up, and communicates with all departments on the shop floor." St Helens Examiner, 1 Feb. 1896, p. 3
ST HELENS. Stringfellows "had those overhead cash canisters as well". Alan in posting to St Helens Connected, 18/8/04
SALFORD. Lands, Regent Road. Overhead wire system. "It even went up and down the open stairway to the second floor and from the basement." Posting to rec.arts.tv.coronation-st newsgroup, 19/9/02.
SOUTHPORT. Co-op. "The best thing about Beacon House was the cash system. The assistant used to put your money into a metal canister placing it in the tubular pipes and send it whizzing through the building to the cash office." Pedoja posting to Southport Forums, 17/10/07. Beacon House was built in 1934 and was the headquarters of Southport & District Co-operative Society. It is now a McDonald's restaurant.
WARRINGTON. Co-op. "There was a great shop in Orford Lane. Does anyone remember when the shop assistant would put your money in a canister, attach it to a cable and pull a lever that would shoot it across the store to the cashier... Later they got an update that was pneumatic and the canister disappeared along pipes. Facebook. Also Warrington Voices. Photographs
WARRINGTON. W. Hodgkinson, Bridge Street. "Each sales department is connected with the counting-house by the Lamson pneumatic tube system which is the first of its kind to be erected in this part of the country. It rapidly conveys the cash from the counter to the lady in charge of the cash desk in the counting-house. St Helens Examiner, 10 Sep. 1904, p. 8
WARRINGTON. Henry Milling & Co. "There was a central cash desk and as customers paid, their money was put into a small container which was then sent on its way via a spring loaded overhead wire contraption." Northern Life Magazine website
WIDNES. Abrahmsons, later Oxleys (dept store). "Had an overhead wire system until well into the 1960s." Steven Pickthall
WIDNES. Skelton's, Jubilee Buildings, Horsemarket Street. "Owing to the fire at Messrs. Skelton's premises last May, an almost complete re-construction has been necessary... Now that the architectural part of the work is complete there is an area of 25,000 square feet... Among other conveniences, Lamson's Cash Railway Rapid Wire system has been fitted up, and communicates with all departments on the shop floor." Widnes Examiner, 1 Feb. 1896, p. 3
WIGAN. Blackamoor Tea Warehouse, 10 Market Street. "S. Laycock begs to announce that in consequence of the great increase of business since opening the new premises, he has found it necessary to adopt the most speedy method known of serving his customers with dispatch. Our numerous friends will now find that we have got the cash railway system in full swing." Wigan Observer and District Advertiser, 17 Sep. 1886, p.1
WIGAN. Cranshaw & Co. "We are indebted to Mr. Poole, of Messrs. Cranshaw and Co., 41 Millgate, for calling our attention to a Lamson Cash Railway which has been fixed in their shop, and which was in complete use on Monday afternoon... At Messrs. Cranshaw & Co.'s establishment the track is 150 feet long, and there are four 'stations'. Wigan Observer and District Advertiser, 25 Aug. 1886, p. 5
WIGAN. Lowes. "I remember Lowe's department store on the Market Place well. It had thick plush carpets laid with brass stair rods on wide wooden stairs. My mother took me to buy my Wigan Girls' High School uniform there ... The cash went whizzing off overhead in a cylinder along a tube system and the receipt and change came back with a whoosh." Carol Coates in posting to WiganWorld
WIGAN. Oxleys. "I remember Oxley's store. I think it had one of those overhead systems where your money for purchases was sent along to a cashier, and your change came whizzing back the other way." Irene Roberts in posting to Wigan World forum, 15/2/15. Formerly Pooles. "Not as posh as Lowes".
WIGAN. Peterkins (high class grocery store). Wire system. Wiganers community website
WITHINGTON. Farnworths, Wilmslow Road. I"I recall Farnworths, the large drapery stores in the centre of the village. Here, when a purchase ws made, the assistant put the money into a round cylinder suspended on an overhead wire, pulled a wooden handle and away went the money and the bill across the shop to a small glassed-in office at the other end... A chair was provided for the customer to sit and wait for the change or to choose from the articles brought to the counter by the assistant." Whittington Civic Society website